EQUIVALENTS

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Milk conversions and substitutions

Use this link for different types of MILK CONVERSIONS.


Chemicals

  • Citric Acid Powder – 1/4 tsp – You can substitute 1 TBL bottled lemon juice – Cannot substitute Ascorbic Acid
  • Lemon Juice – 1 TBL – You can substitute 1/4 tsp citric acid powder – Cannot substitute Ascorbic Acid
  • Ascorbic Acid – You can substitute lemon juice or citric acid powder, but not the other way around

Liquid Measurements / Volume

  • 1 Gallon = 4 QT = 8 PT = 16 C =128 OZ = 3.8 L
  • 1 QT = 2 PT = 4 C = 32 OZ = .95 L = 950 ml
  • 1 PT = 2 C = 16 OZ = 480 ml
  • 1 C = 8 OZ = 240 ml
  • 1 OZ = 30 ml = 28.5 gm
  • 100 ml = 3.4 OZ = 1/2 C minus 1 TBL
  • 250 ml = 1 C plus 2 TBL
  • 1 IMPERIAL Gallon = 1.2 US Gallons = 4.5 L

Dry Measurements

  • 1/4 C = 4 TBL = 12 tsp = 2 OZ = 60 ml
  • 1 TBL = 3 tsp = 1/2 FL OZ = 15 ml
  • 1 tsp = 5 ml = 1 CC

Weight / Mass

  • 1 OZ = 28.4 gm
  • 1 KG = 2.2 LB =
  • 1 LB = .45 KG
  • 100 gm = 3.5 OZ
  • 250 gm = 8.8 OZ

Temperature

  • Degrees Celsius to Fahrenheit :: Multiply by 1.8 (or 9/5) and add 32º
  • Fahrenheit to Celsius :: Subtract 32º and multiply by 0.55 (or 5/9)
  • Fry temperature = 350º – 370º F :: Lower than 350 your food will be greasy.  Above 370º and it will burn.
  • Burnt Sugar = 350º F = 177º C – Becomes bitter
  • Brown Sugar – Liquid Caramel = 338º – 350º F
  • Clear Liquid Sugar Concentrate (Karo) = 320º – 335º F
    – High Fructose Corn Syrup – The chemical chain is not good for us, but tastes REALLY good.
  • Hard Crack Stage = 300º – 310º F (eg) Hard Tack, Lollipops
  • Soft Crack Stage = 270º – 290º F (eg) Taffy
  • Hard Ball Stage = 250º – 265º F (eg) Gummy Bears
  • Firm Ball Stage = 245º – 250º F (eg) Caramels
  • Soft Ball Stage = 235º – 240º F (eg) Fudge
  • Thread Stage = 230º – 235º F
  • Jams and Jellies = 220º – 225º F
  • 212º F = 100º C – Steam – has more kinetic energy than the water – will cause severe and more painful burning.  Will have the same effect as 230º liquid.
  • 212º F = 100º C – Hot water – will cause burning
  • 162º F – Skin will be destroyed on contact – scarring will occur
  • 131º F – Second degree burning will occur
  • 125º F = 52º C – Painful burning will occur
  • 108º F = 42º C – Hottest bath that is marginally safe
  • 98.6º F = 37º C
  • 68º F = 20º C
  • 32º F = 0º C
  • -40º F = -40º C – Not useful, but interesting!
  • -109º F = -78º C = Temperature of Dry Ice – Causes tissue damage in 5 seconds
  • ABSOLUTE ZERO = –273.15° C = –459.67° F

For Speed and Length Conversions CLICK HERE.

Find more like this: Non-Cooking Ref Matl

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