These five sauces are the building blocks for most other sauces
- Béchemel – A white sauce – Roux plus dairy – usually milk or cream
- Velouté – A white sauce – Roux plus a clear stock – chicken, vegetable or fish
- Espagnole – Roux plus a brown stock – veal or beef
- Tomato Sauce – Roux plus tomatoes – Italian style skips the roux and just reduces tomatoes
- Hollandaise – Egg yolks plus clarified butter plus an acid – usually lemon or white wine
A roux is basically equal parts butter and flour cooked over medium heat.
If you are making a white sauce, do not brown the butter.
A sauce should fall into one of three categories
1. A roux – Four of the above five start out with a roux
2. An emulsification
3. A reduction
- Homemade macaroni and cheese, classic croque madame, lasagna,
- Mornay sauce – Béchemel plus Gruyére or Parmesan
- Mustard sauce – Béchemel plus Dijon mustard
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